individual differences

Many words in English are morphologically complex (*assign*-*ment*, *teach*-*er*) and so being able to proficiently apply the correct endings (suffixes) to complex words is an important skill to acquire. In this project we analyzed the written production of English language learners and asked *What kinds of morphologically complex words are the most difficult for EFL students to learn?*

This technical report assessed the change in English language skills of 340 EFL students enrolled in a university bridging program. This report used of the Reliable Change Index Statistic in order to test if the change in scores is greater than might would be expected from random variation alone. The report is available on [ResearchGate](https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342691082_Technical_report_on_change_in_language_abilities_of_students_enrolled_in_the_McMaster_English_Language_Development_MELD_program).

Does your incoming reading skill give you a developmental advantage in an academic English bridging program? This longitudinal eye-movement study of over 400 EFL students showed that if you enter a bridging program with stronger English reading proficiency, you may have a head start in your reading fluency and reading comprehension. However, **students of all incoming reading ability levels** develop reading fluency and comprehension **at the same rate**.

Using machine learning to investigate factors that predict EFL reading development. This project was published in [Reading Research Quarterly](https://ila.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/rrq.362/).